Smoking doubles the risk of heart failureИюль 3, 2022
Scientists at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health have shown that smoking tobacco cigarettes doubles the risk of developing heart failure. This is reported in an article published in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.
Researchers analyzed records of 9,500 people aged 61 to 81 and found that ex-smokers remain at high risk of heart failure of any type for decades after they quit smoking. According to experts, such results underline the importance of quitting smoking among children and young people.
There are two types of heart failure: reduced ejection fraction and preserved ejection fraction. In heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, the left ventricle cannot contract sufficiently to pump blood, and this is most closely associated with coronary artery disease. In heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, the left ventricle cannot relax sufficiently after contraction. Treatment for this type is limited, and the causes are not entirely clear.
During a mean follow-up of 13 years, 1215 cases of heart failure were reported in the study, including 492 cases of decreased ejection fraction and 555 cases of preserved ejection fraction. Compared with non-smokers, the risk of retained ejection fraction increased by 2.28 times and 2.16 times for reduced ejection fraction. More cigarettes per day and more years of smoking are associated with a higher risk of heart failure.
Overall, ex-smokers have a 31 percent and 36 percent greater risk of retained ejection fraction and reduced ejection fraction, respectively, compared with never-smokers.
Heart failure is a progressive condition in which the heart is unable to pump enough blood to supply the body’s cells with oxygen and nutrients. It is one of the most common causes of disability and death in developed countries. More than six million adults in the US alone are living with heart failure, according to the latest data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. In addition to cigarette smoking, risk factors for heart failure include obesity, hypertension, diabetes, coronary heart disease, and older age.